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Japanese for 'indigo', Polygonum tinctorium, Lour. and other dye plants that produce a characteristic blue color. This annual plant is planted in March and by summer is ready for the first of three harvests. The harvested leaves are composted to reduce the bulk and concentrate the dye material. The SUKUMO (composted indigo leaves) must be reduced (oxygen removed from the dye solution) in a highly alkaline solution (pH 9-11) to be useable as a dye. The dyed material is yellowish-green when first removed from the dye bath and gradually turns blue as it is exposed to the air. Tokushima has long been famous for its indigo dye production and indigo dyed materials. May also refer to Indigofera tinctoria . Different shades of blue have special names such as ASAGI, a pale blue; HANADA IRO, a light blue; and KON, a dark navy blue.

The process of rinsing the AKU or impurities (alkaline solution and dissolved elements) from the cooked fibers.

Chemicals that are added during the cooking process to help dissolve the non-cellulose materials in the bast fibers. The most commonly used alkalis are (from strongest to weakest) caustic soda, soda ash, lime and wood ash.

This is the green layer between thedark outer layer and the inner-most white bast fibers; also refers to the SHIROKAWA with the green layer still attached. Sometimes referred to as NAZEKAWA in some areas.

Japanese for 'hemp', Cannabis sativa, L. or marijuana. Although sometimes this same term is used to refer to ramie, abaca, flax or linen. Hemp was raised for its fiber for use in the production of fabric and paper in Awa (the old name for Tokushima). It was one of the three principle fibers used in ancient paper production. Hemp had long been used in China and hemp paper was often used for the highest class correspondence. The long hemp fibers were cut and beaten to soften and the rough surface of the paper had to be burnished by beating or polishing before use. Due to difficulties in fiber preparation and the roughness of the surface of the finished paper, the use of hemp as a papermaking fiber began to decline in the Heian period. This fiber was later replaced by MITSUMATA.

Japanese word meaning 'to press'.

Japanese for 'press'. The traditional press is a counter-weighted device. The post of freshly made paper is lightly weighted overnight before being put in the press the next day. It is then gradually pressed until 20% - 30% of the water content is removed. Nowadays hydraulic presses are also used.

Literally 'to dye after', and refers to the process of dyeing the finished papers. Natural or chemical dyes or pigments may be used in a variety of techniques to color or decorate the paper.

Japanese term that generally refers to thick paper.

Japanese for the long bamboo stick used to mix the fiber mixture in the vat.

The mechanical means by which the fibers are beaten into a pulp.

The process of fibrillation of the plant fibers by mechanical or manual methods. The purpose is to roughen and separate the fibrils from the fiber bundles to allow more surface area for bonding to occur during the papermaking process.

Literally 'rubbish paper', but it is not meant to indicate that it is an inferior paper. It is a decorative kozo paper with added bits of dark outer bark. The bark is added to the prepared kozo pulp just prior to the formation process. In the old days it was used as an inexpensive wrapping paper. Now it is also used for craft and decorative purposes. Also called CHIRI IRI GAMI or KAWA IRI GAMI or KASU GAMI.

Literally 'to remove rubbish'. The step in Japanese papermakingto remove the impu rities such as scar tissue, buds, unevenly cooked fibers, discolored areas from the cooked fibers prior to beating.

A highly decorative printed paper used for craft purposes. It was originally printed with wood blocks but now other printing methods such as silk screen are used. Many of the traditional designs can be traced back to the Edo period.

The second of the three basic actions used to form a sheet of paper using the nagashizuki method. The fiber-neri-water mixture is scooped and rocked back and forth to layer the fibers evenly over the screen surface. The excess is tossed out over the far edge of the mould away from the papermaker. It is important to keep the mixture constantly moving to prevent uneven fiber distribution. This action is repeated until the desired thickness of the paper is achieved.


From the verb, COUCHER-to lay down; from the Old French, COLCHER, CULCHER, COLCHIER and the Latin, COLLOCURE-to place

Japanese for beating done by hand; the fibers are placed on a wooden or stone surface and separated and roughened as it is hit with a mallet or wooden beater.

Japanese stamper used to beat or fibrillate the fibers into a pulp in lieu of beating by hand. The stamper consists of a large hammer or bar that beats the cooked fiber in a mortar-like container. The stamper may be powered by wind, animal or manually; although most are now motorized.

This paper name has been in use since the Nara period. The original paper was made from the fibers of the Spindle tree or MAYUMI (Euonymus seiboldiana, Blume of the Celastraceae family ) but kozo has been used since the end of the Heian period . The current form of this strongly crepe textured paper began in the Edo period. It is used for ceremonial purposes and as a high grade wrapping paper.

The word originated from the German, DECKEL and Old Dutch, DEKFEL, which means ' cover ' . In Western papermaking moulds, it is the removable wooden frame that fits snugly on the mould around the screen area. This contains the pulp on the screen surface during the sheet formation process and determines the size and shape of the paper.

A sizing solution made from NIKAWA and MYOBAN. The word, DOSA, originally came from the Dutch word meaning 'alum'.

Paper may be dried by natural or mechanical means. The drying method affects the finished paper. AdvantagesDisadvantagesNatural drying (board drying) * Traditional paper touch and surface will be obtained.* Sometimes surface is too soft* Paper bleached by sunlight. * Weather is unreliable. * Paper weight is stablized; will not increase after drying.* Color changes depending on the weather. * Expansion and contraction rate smaller. * Hinders mass production. * The paper and drying surface dry at the same rate resulting in a stronger paper . Mechanical drying (heated metal surfaces)* Paper surface is tightened and a stiff paper obtained. * Special characteristics of some papers are lost.* Surface very smooth, even and uniform.* Paper weight increases with age.* Drying not dependent on weather or season. * Requires large amount of fuel. * Suitable for mass production.

Japanese term for the bubbles that appear between the newly couched sheets of paper on the couching stand. Literally 'balloon'

One of the three traditional Japanese papermaking fibers obtained from a number of related plants of the Thymelaeceae or Daphne family. The most commmonly used are Diplomorpha sikokiana, Nakai and Wikstroemia sikokiana. This plant cannot be cultivated so all the bark gathered are from trees growing wild in the mountains. The bark is harvested in three to five year cycles during mid-March to late April, just as the sap is rising and the sheen of the fibers is at its best. The bark is immediately stripped off the freshly cut stalks (steaming is not necessary) and hung in bunches to dry. The fine, tough, glossy fibers average three to five millimeters in length and produces a very strong, translucent lustrous paper. The sap is toxic and this may be why the fibers are very resistant to insect damage. The best gampi is from Shikoku (Tokushima, Kochi, Ehime, Kagawa prefectures) and Kinki (Wakayama, Osaka, Kyoto, Hyogo, Nara prefectures) areas of Japan. The demand for this fiber is greater than the amount produced domestically so this fiber is also imported from the Philippines. Gampi paper is sometimes referred to as HISHI, literally 'beautiful paper'.

Deinanthe bifida, Maxim., a traditional source of NERI,is a member for the Saxifragaceae or Strawberry Geranium family. It is sometimes called 'blue bottle grass' or 'silver plum grass' because the small white flowers that bloom in the summer resemble white plum blossoms. It is a short perennial that grows to a height of 60 cm (2 feet) in high mountain gorges (1000 meter or 3000 foot elevation). It is sometimes referred to as IMO NIBE (literally 'root neri') because the neri is extracted from the roots of this plant. The roots are harvested in the fall and stored in a dark humid place. These are crushed to reveal as much of the inner surface as possible. The crushed roots are soaked overnight in water to extract the neri. The neri is strained to remove any small particles before use.

Japanese term for insufficiently dried paper that wrinkles because it is removed from the drying surface before completely dried.

Japanese for 'brush' . A wide brush used to apply the damp sheets of paper onto the drying surface. The bristles may be horse or other animal hair or plant fibers. In Tokushima, the stems of HIMEKANSUGE (Carex conica Boott), a type of sedge is used to make the drying brushes. Brushes made from plantfibers have more body and this makes application of the paper to the drying surface easier but it leaves brush marks on the paper surface. Brushes made from animal hair are softer and are used for thin papers.

Literally 'half sheet', it was originally half the size of old SUGIHARA SHI. It is a versatile, durable, thin, light and inexpensive kozo paper that is usually used for calligraphy, books, etc. It is produced in many areas and usually carries the name of the area it is produced in such as SEKISHU (Shimane Prefecture) HANSHI and SURUGA (Shizuoka Prefecture) HANSHI. Nowadays, MOZO (imitation) BANSHI and KAIRYO (improved) BANSHI are made from a mixture of wood pulp and other materials. The size is 24~25 cm x 32.5~35 cm, depending on the area of manufacture.

Japanese term meaning 'to remove the imperfections (bud scars, bark, etc. ) from the KUROKAWA; also used to refer to the resulting product.


A machine invented in Holland in the late 17th century for beating rags and fibers into pulp for papermaking. The fibers circulate around an oval shaped tub and are roughened and cut as they pass between a metal or stone bed p]ate and a cylindrical roller with blades. The motion of the roller keeps the pulp circulating. lt processes fibers faster than a stamper. This machine may have evolved from an ancient Dutch seed grinder.

HOSHO SHI (also called HOSHO GAMI)
A high grade kozo paper. The name comes from its original use as the paper on which the oral commands of the Shogun were written by government officials and the official seal affixed. This paper originated in Echizen (Fukui Prefecture) but is now also made in other papermaking areas. It is highly prized as a wood block print paper. The standard size is 39.4 x 53 cm.

The boards used for drying papers. These boards may be made from pine or Japanese horse chestnut but the highest quality boards are made from gingko wood.

Japanese for 'bleaching',the chemical or natural method of purifying or whitenin the fibers, pulp and/or paper. The chemical process usually uses a chlorine solution such as sodium hypochlorite ~NaClO]. This must be carefully controlled so as not to damage or weaken the fibers. Traditional Japanese bleaching methods do not use chemicals but inYolve the use of water, sunlight or snow.

The traditional method of drying paper. The damp papers are brushed onto wooden boards (HOSHI ITA) and placed in the sun to dry [TENPI ITABOSHI, literally 'board drying in the sun', or TENPI KANSO, literally 'natural drying']. The sunlight naturally bleaches the paper as it dries. These boards are placed against the ITA HAZA (support stands) and must be moved often to maintain the most direct exposure to the sun. This process is very vunerable to weather conditions so nowadays board drying often takes place in specially heated drying rooms [SHITSUNAI ITABOSHI, literally 'indoor board drying'].

Literally 'board clamp dyeing'. It is a method of dyeing using clamps to create a pattern. The clamps act as a resist that controls the amount of dye or prevents the dye from coloring the paper. Traditionally this method was used to dye fabric. The designs are created using pieces of wood clamped to accordian folded paper. Sometimes the dyer uses just the pressure of holding the folded paper tightly between the fingers. The finger pressure can be easily adjusted to control the absorbtion rate of the dye. Due to the folding of the paper it is sometimes called 'fold dyeing'. Fuji Paper Mills Cooperative began using this method to create patterned paper over 20 years ago. One variation is called SEKKAZOME literally 'snowflower dyeing', because the resulting pattern resembles snowflakes.

Japanese for 'bast fiber'. Bast fibers are fibers from the bark of the stems or branches of woody shrubs and trees. It is composed of three layers; the dark outer layer or bark (KUROKAWA), a middle green layer [AOHADA], and the inner-most white layer (SHIROKAWA). The fibers are composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignins and other non-cellulose materials such as gums, resins, starches, etc. that are removed during the cooking process.

The detachable guides that are attached to the front edge of the SHITODAI to help align the placement of the SU directly over the previously made sheet on the post during couching.

In Japanese papermaking, the process of forming a sheet of paper by shaking the mould both lengthwise (back and forth) and crosswise (left to right) to entangle the fibers.

Broussonetia papyrifera, vent.; a member of the Moraceae or Mulberry family. It is one of the traditional plants used for Japanese papermaking. It is sometimes referred to as KOZO, a botanically different plant that is similar in appearance. The leaves of the KAJINOKI are larger than those of Broussonetia kajinoki (commonly referred to as KOZO) and were used during the summer Tanabata festival to write poems on. It is easily cultivated and can grow to a height of 3 meters (9 feet). The stalks are harvested annually after the leaves drop. The fibers are longer and stronger than KOZO. This plant is originally from China and can be traced along migration routes from China through Southeast Asia and into the Pacific regions.

The first of three basic actions to make paper using the nagashizuki method. This initial stroke creates the face or front of the paper. It is a rapid pushing movement that causes the pulp mixture to quickly flow across the surface of the screen from front to back. The excess pulp is tossed off over the far edge of the mould, away from the papermaker. The quick action causes the fibers to align perpendicular to the splints in the screen surface. Literally it means 'to begin the flow'.

The fermented juice of green persimmons (Diospyros kaki). The tannin in the juice provides wet strength when applied to paper or threads. It has a characteristic red-brown color that darkens with age and oxidation.

Japanese for 'paper'. The ideographic character consists of two parts; 'ITO' which representsthread or a thread-like material (the origin of this character is from the ancient symbol for silk cocoon), and 'SI' which means flat or even. This is a very accurate ancient description of the flat material made from threads (old rags, rope, nets, etc.) or thread-like materials (fibers) that we now call 'paper'. When this character is used as a suffix or in combination, then it can be read as 'GAMI' like in 'AWAGAMI' or 'SHI' like in 'WASHI'.

Literally 'the front and back of paper'. The side that touches the drying surface and has no brush marks is considered to be the front or face of handmade paper. This surface is formed by the KAKENAGASHI, the initial action of the NAGASHIZUKI method. The rougher side, away from the drying the surface is the back of the paper. This surface is formed by the SUTEMIZU or final action of the papermaker and is often marked with brush strokes during the drying process.

Japanese for the GRAIN of the paper. The grain is the general direction the paper fibers are aligned during the formation process. Paper torn along the grain, will easily tear in a straight line; tearing against the grain will result in a very jagged edge. The grain of handmade Japanese paper can be easily determined by holding the paper to the light. The grain runs parallel to the bolder thread lines (which are usually spaced several centimeters apart). The finer screen lines indicate the YOKO or 'direction against the grain'. Literally 'the paper's length or height'; this is usually the shorter of the two dimensions.

Japanese term referring to the direction against the grain of the paper. Literally 'the paper's width or breadth'.

Literally 'to turn the paper over'. Japanese term for the couching process. This process transfers the newly formed sheet of paper from the SU to the post. Sometimes refered to as 'SU O FUSERU' or 'to turn the screen over'.

The general Japanese term for 'papermaking' and refers to 'TESUKI' or handmade and 'KIKAIZUKI' or mechanical methods of making paper. There are two methods of making oriental papers; 'NAGASHIZUKI' and 'SOSOGIKOMI SHIKI'. 'TAMEZUKI' now is used to refer to the Western style or the accumulation method of making paper.

Japanese for 'caustic soda'. Also known as lye or sodium hydroxide [NaOH]. lt is the strongest alkali used for cooking the fibers and must be handled with great care to prevent chemical burns. It is strong enough to dissolve the non-cellulose materials in the bark in the KUROKAWA stage. The amount used is generally 15% of the weight of the dry fiber. It tends to give the fiber a greenish tint which may require bleaching to remove.

Japanese for the process of removing the KUROKAWA and AOHADA from the strip of bark. Literally 'to scrape away the bark'; sometimes called 'KAWA MUKI'

A traditional method of washing and bleaching the fibers in a river or stream. Literally 'river bleaching'. The fibers are placed securely in a shallow portion of a slow flowing river or stream. The combination of the water and sunlight help to bleach the fibers.

Japanese for the wooden frame that contains the SU or flexible screen. It consists of an upper (UWAGETA ) and lower (SHITAGETA) part, which are usually hinged together. The upper portion acts like the removable deckle of the Western style papermaking mould. The lower portion contains several narrow supports that run perpendicular to the splints in the SU. These supports [SAN] are made of wood and/or metal and the SU rests on these when it is sandwiched inside the frame. The mould is held closed, securing the SU tightly between the upper and lower sections during the papermaking process by metal clasps (KAKEGANE)

Japanese for 'wood ash'. It is the weakest alkali used for cooking the fibers. Its principal component is potassium carbonate. Usually the liquid used is extracted by filtering water through the ash. This was the original alkali used in ancient times. In some areas of Southeast Asia, the wood ash is mixed directly with the bark and water during the cooking process.

Literally 'gold washi'. This is a kind of decorative paper whose texture is created by the pulp mixture during the formation process. Long hemp fibers are beaten, cooked with KASEI SODA, bleached then mixed with the base fiber. The glossy hemp fibers give this paper its name. This paper is also called OGURA SHI.

Japanese term for beating done by beaters such as HOLLANDER BEATERS where the fiber bundles are separated by crushing between a metal plate and a metal roller or NAGINATA BEATERS which use long blades to tease apart the fiber bundles.

The starch derived from the root of the Devil's Tongue or konjac plant (Amorphophallus konjac), a member of the Arum family. The starch is mixed with water and heated to form a thick liquid. This liquid is brushed onto papers for wet strength, especially papers that are to be dyed with indigo. To prepare the konnyaku sizing, gradually add 10 grams of konnyaku powder (0.5% of the total weight) to 2 liters of water while constantly stirring. Heat the solution and stir until it boils. Allow the solution to cool before use.

Broussonetia kajinoki; a member of the Moraceae or Mulberry family. It is sometimes referred to as 'paper mulberry'. This name is also used to refer to a variety of other related plants. It is easily cultivated and accounts for 90% of the bast fiber used. The stalks are harvested annually after the leaves drop. The cut stalks are steamed for easier removal of the bark. The stripped bark (KUROKAWA) is hung to dry then stored until ready to be used. The long durable fibers, averaging 10 mm in length, interlace well and is said to form a 'masculine' paper. This fiber has been in use since ancient times and is probably the most representative of the traditional fibers. Kochi Prefecture produces most of the domestic KOZO but the quantity produced is not enough to meet the demand, so KOZO is also imported from Thailand . In ancient times, KOZO paper was referred to as KOKUSHI.

Sophora angustifolia, Sieb. et. Zucc., a member of the Leguminosae or Legume family. The use of this fiber for papermaking is noted in the Engishiki, an ancient Heian period chronicle written in 927 A.D. The plant is also used as an herbal medicine.

Literally 'black bark'. This is the dark outermost layer of the bark. This is usually removed before cooking the bark in alkali. The bits of outer bark of KOZO are saved and used as a decorative additive to a base pulp to create decorative and craft papers.

Japanese for chiaroscuro or shaded watermarks. When held to the light, these watermarks appear three dimensional, since parts of the design appear lighter and darker than the base paper. Literally 'black watermark'.

Japanese for 'natural dyeing'. The process of dyeing with plants and plant parts (roots, leaves, bark, seeds, fruit, etc.). The dye is extracted in a variety of methods such as juice extraction, fermentation, simmering or precipitation. The colors may be changed by using different mordants (chemicals) that react with the dye materials. Some natural dyes and the resulting colors:AI (indigo, Polygonum tinctorium) = blue BENIBANA (safflower, Carthamus tinctorius) = yellow, red, vermillion KUSUNOKI (carnphor, Cinnamomum camphora) = red-brown SUO (sappan, Caesalpinia sappan) = pink UKON (tumeric, Curcuma longa) = yellow

Literally 'strengthened paper'. This paper is coated with KONNYAKU then rubbed and crumpled to soften. The KONNYAKU makes the paper strong and flexible. Usually thick high quality kozo paper is used. It is also called 'MOMI GAMI', literally 'kneaded paper '.

Japanese for 'abaca' or 'Manila hemp', Musa texitilis of the Musaceae or Banana family. It is not a true hemp but related to the banana. The leaf stems provide exceptionally strong and durable fibers that can be used for paper, rope and textiles. It is cultivated in the Philippines and other parts of Asia and South America.


A decorative technique of manipulating colors floating on the surface of a thickened liquid into a wide variety of designs that are then transferred to paper. Western marbling is thought to have originated in Persia around the 15 th century. The English name, 'marbling', comes from the early patterns which resembled the patterns found on marble stone. The names of some of the patterns reflect the probable place of origin, such as Italian, Old Dutch (Netherlands) and Nonpareil (France). These papers were traditionally used as borders for manuscripts, calligraphy, drawings and paintings. Later it was also used for book covers and endpapers. Nowadays it is also used for cards, wrapping, collage, etc.

Japanese for the feathered edges on a sheet of handmade paper. It is formed by the pulp that flows between the mould and the deckle. This can be minimized or exaggerated as needed. A torn or rough edge can be imparted to machine made paper to give it a handmade appearance. In the old days, the deckled edges were considered undesirable and were cut away but now it is the identifying mark of handmade paper. Literally it means 'with ears'.

Literally 'folk craft paper'. General term for a wide variety of papers. Production of these papers began during the folk craft movement started by Muneyoshi Yanagi. The first MINGEISHI included Eishiro Abe's unbleached KOZO, GAMPI and MITSUMATA papers, natural dyed papers, papers with coarse fibers added, etc. These were used for everyday items such as envelopes, FUSUMA (sliding panel doors), SHIKISHI (squarish thick paper used for calligraphy and poetry), TANZAKU (long narrow thick paper used for calligraphy and poetry), etc. These papers are now produced in many areas and in many different varieties and colors.

Japanese for 'unbleached'. This general term is used to indicate that the fibers or the paper have not been bleached. Unbleached paper is referred to as MISARASHI KAMI.

One of the three main fibers used in Japanese papermaking. The fibers are obtained from a number of related plants of the Thymelaeceae or Daphne family, usually Edgeworthia papyrifera, Sieb. or Edgeworthia chrysantha, Lindl are used. Its use as a papermaking fiber began during the Edo period as the use of ASA or hemp ceased. The plant is easily distinguished by the triple [MITSU] branching [MATA] that occurs at each joint. In the spring, the plant is covered with clusters of small yellow flowers that bloom before the leaves appear. It grows to a height of 2 meters (6 feet) and a crop can be harvested every three years. The harvested stalks are steamed to facilitate the stripping of the bark. The bark is hung in bundles to dry then stored until it is needed for papermaking. The primary areas of production are Okayama, Kochi, Tokushima, Shimane and Ehime prefectures. The fiber is similar in appearance to GAMPI but lacks the toughness of the uncultivatable GAMPI. The supple MITSUMATA fibers create a fine glossy surfaced 'feminine' paper. This surface is excellent for precise detail printing. Japanese paper currency contains this fiber.

Literally 'waterdrop paper'. This decorative paper is made by spraying or sprinkling water through a stencil or directly on a freshly formed sheet. The water displaces the KOZO fibers to create a lace-like effect. Sometimes this paper is couched directly onto a solid sheet to create a two-layer paper. Also known as RAKUSUI SHI,literally 'falling water paper.'

MOULD (also spelled MOLD ) see: DECKLE, KETA
The wooden frame, usually rectangular, that is covered with a sieve-like surface. It is usually used with a DECKLE for sheet formation. The mould can be classified according to its screen surface. The surface of the laid mould is made of closely spaced parallel wires, bamboo splints or straw stems, held in place by more widely spaced perpendicular chain wires or threads. The surface of a wove mould is a woven mesh surface. It could be made of wire screen or loosely woven fabric.

Japanese for 'alum'; a complex salt, usually a hydrate of potassium aluminum sulfate. Potassium aluminum sulfate is the most commonly used but sometimes ammonium aluminum sulphate is also used. Usually used with rosin as a sizing or as a mordant to fix dyes to the fiber. It is highly acidic. When used as a mordant, it generally brightens the color.

Japanese for the 'flowing' or 'discharge' method of making paper. It is the method most associated with WASHI. The method usually uses a hinged wooden mould and deckle unit with a removable flexible screen. The long fibered pulp is mixed with NERI, which changes the viscosity of the water. This enables the fibers to stay in suspension during the sheet formation process. This method has three basic actions:KAKENAGASHI $B!( (Balso called UBUMIZU, KUMIKOMI CHOSHI; also called MOTASE SUTEMIZU This method lends itself to the production of strong, translucent thin sheets of paper as well as papers with a wide variety of thicknesses and characteristics.

A specialized machine developed in Japan for fiber preparation. It is similar to the HOLLANDER BEATER, but it has long curved blades, shaped like a halberd or NAGINATA, rather than a beater roll. The long blades tease apart rather than cut the fibers.

This is the general Japanese term for the clear, thick, slippery, viscous formation aid that is indispensible in making washi using the nagashizuki method. It is also called 'TAMO', 'NEBESHI', 'SANA', 'NIBE' and 'NORI' in different areas. It is sometimes referred to as a glue or mucilage, but it does not stick the fibers together; it primarily changes the viscosity of the water. Natural NERI is obtained from the roots or bark of various plants. The most commonly used plant is the TORORO AOI. Other plants include NORIUTSUGI, GINBAISO, BINAN KAZURA (Kazura japonica), AOGIRI (sultan's parasol, Firmiana platanifolia) and okra (Hibiscus esculentus). Natural NERI is heat sensitive and loses its viscosity as temperatures rise. In olde $B#n (Bdays, the best papers were made during the cold winter months. Now KAGAKU NERI or synthetic or chemica lNERI is also used. These include water soluble macromoleculars like polyacrylamide (PNS, which is anionic and PMP, which is cationic) and polyethylene oxide (PEO). These present less problems with decomposition or maintaining the proper viscosity under a wide range of conditions. The original NERI was probably obtained accidentally from the GAMPI fiber. The papermakers noticed that pulps using GAMPI allowed them to move the pulp mixture back and forth several times over the screen surface before the water drained out. This resulted in a stronger paper with evenly intertwined fibers. For convenience, the NERI was extracted from other plants and added to the pulp mixture. This modification enabled the development of the NAGASHIZUKI method by the early 9th century. NERI is a water soluble complex polysaccharide, similar in chemical composition to hemicellulose and pectin, but it is also a macromolecular compound like cellulose. These spread out in the water increasing the viscosity of water thus slowing the drainage rate. It also coats the beaten fibers and the exposed fibrils thus creating a hydrated layer that prevents direct contact between the fibers. The coating gives the fibers an identical electrical charge which cause them to repel each other and thus the fibers remain well dispersed and allows the sheets to be couched directly onto the previously made sheet. The viscosity decreases as the wateris gently pressed out, thus the fibers are able to form their hydrogen bonding between each other yet the sheets will separate from each other on the post.

It is a gelatin glue derived from boiled animal and/or fish skins, bones, etc. It is melted and mixed with alum to form a sizing. Similar to western animal or rabbit skin glue.

Hydrangea paniculata or Hydrangea floribunda; a member of the Hydrangea family. It grows naturally throughout Japan's mountains and fields. It is a perennial deciduous shrub that can grow as tall as 3 meters (9 feet). In the summer, clusters of very pale yellow to offwhite flowers are produced that are charcteristic of the hydrangea family. It is sometimes referred to as 'KI NERI' (literally 'tree neri') or 'KAWA NIBE' (literally 'bark neri') because the neri is extracted from the inner tree (KI) bark (KAWA) of the plant. The bark is stripped from the tree trunks and soaked in a weak soda solution then stored until ready to be used. The neri is obtained by soaking the bark in water and straining the resulting liquid before use.

True paper, according to Dard Hunter, is a thin sheet of fibers macerated into individual fibrils. These beaten fibers are mixed with water and lifted from the water using a sievelike screen. When the water drains through the screen holes, a sheet of matted fibers is left on the surface. The fibers are not simply entwined together but form a tight chemical (hydrogen) bond as the sheet dries. When this is dried, it becomes what we call 'paper'. The basic process has not changed in over 2,000 years.

A misnomer sometimes used to refer to WASHI. It is also used to refer to the soft velvety paper-like material that has long been used by Chinese artists for water color paintings and calligraphy and in the United States and Europe to create realistic artificial flowers. Rice paper is misnamed because it is not made from rice or any similar grass nor does rice play any part in its manufacture. Also it is not a true paper because it is not composed of reformed matted fibers but is made by spirally cutting the soft spongy pith of the Tetrapanax papyriferum, Hook. into a continuous strip only a few millimeters in thickness. Also called 'wood fiber'. This plant is a native of Taiwan and southern China. It grows to a height of 1-2 meters (3-6 feet) with large palmate leaves. It is found at elevations from 600-1,200 meters (2,000-4,000 feet) where there is abundant rainfall.

Literally 'dyeing before' and refers to the process of dyeing the pulp prior to the formation of paper. Natural or chemical dyes or pigments may be used to color the pulp.

Japanese for 'bleached'. This general term is used to indicate that the fibers or the paper have been bleached either by natural or chemical methods.

The sieve-like surface of a papermaking mould. On Western moulds, it is attached to the wooden frame and can be either a 'laid' or 'wove' surface. In Japanese moulds, it is a flexible removable mat-like device made of fine bamboo splints or congon straw stems.

The process of steaming the cut stalks of kozo and mitsumata in special steamers to soften the bark and make removal easier. The steamed stalks are stripped off in a single stroke starting from the base (end nearest the root). The resulting stripped bark is called KUROKAWA .

General term for a variety of lime(a mild alkali). These include quick lime or 'SHOSEKKAI and slaked lime or 'SHOSEKKAI' . Garden lime or calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] or 'SEKKAI' is the most commonly used. It imparts a slightly warm tone to the cooked fibers and is used for materials that will not be bleached. Quick lime is a desiccating agent and is slightly more alkaline than slaked lime, which is used as a fertilizer or plastering material. Usually the amount of alkali used during the cooking process is equal to about 20% of the dry weight of the fiber. The fibers must be rinsed very well because these alkalis tend to remain in the fibers and this could eventually weaken the paper

The process of dissolving the non-cellulose materials in the fibers in a heated alkaline solution. The length of cooking time is determined by the type of fiber, alkali used and kind of paper to be made. The fibers must be carefully rinsed after cooking to remove all traces of the alkali solution and the dissolved extraneous materials. Other Japanese terms that refer to this process are: 'JOKAI' , 'JOSHA' .

Japanese for 'tie dyeing', the method of gathering portions of the paper and securing these areas by sewing or wrapping tightly with thread and then dyeing. The dyed sheets are sometimes allowed to dry before the thread is removed. The thread and gathers resist the dye to create the pattern.

Literally 'white bark'. This is the inner-most layer of the bast fibers with the outer colored layers (KUROKAWA, AOHADA) removed.

Literally 'wet floor' or 'paper floor', depending on the characters used. Japanese for the post or stack of wet newly formed sheets of paper. The couching stand is referred to as 'SHITO DAI'.

Japanese for soda ash or washing soda. Also known as sodium carbonate [NaCO3] or 'TANSAN SODA'. The amount used is generally 15%-20% of the dry weight of the fiber. It does not impart any tint to the fibers so it is used to cook SHIROKAWA or other light colored fibers, fresh plant materials or materials that will not be bleached. It is milder than KASEI SODA, so any foreign particles and KUROKAWA must be removed before cooking.

Japanese for the poured single sheet method of making paper; sometimes referred to as the "Nepalese method". This process probably most closely resembles the original method of papermaking used during the time of Ts'ai Lun. This method is still used in Nepal, Burma, Tibet, and Thailand. It is one of the methods used to make oriental or Eastern papers. The prepared pulp, either long or short fibered, is mixed with water and poured into a mould that is partially submerged in or floating on water. The pulp is stirred to evenly distribute it over the non-removable mould surface. Then the water is drained as the mould is lifted out of the water, then the sheet of paper is left on the mould until dry. This method requires one mould for each sheet of paper to be made and a large space to spread the moulds out during drying. The mould is basically a loosely woven fabric surface that is secured within a four sided wooden frame. No separate deckle is used. The surface of the finished paper is uneven and is usually burnished to flatten and smoothen.

This is the flexible removable screen that is usually made of very thin 'MADAKE'Phyllostachys bambusoides Sieb. et. Zucc.) bamboo splints (splints are referred to in Japanese as 'SUBE' or 'HIGO') that are held together by silk threads ('KINU ITO') that have been treated with KAKISHIBU for wet strength. Strips of Japanese cypress wood form the top and bottom bars or 'HERIKI' of the screen. The diameter of the SUBE varies according to the type of paper to be made on the SU. For example, screens for thin paper may contain 40 to 45 SUBE per three centimeters (or 1-1/ 8")! In some regions the SU is made from congon straw or 'KAYA' (Miscanthus sinesis Anderss.) and is known as 'KAYA SU'.

Japanese for 'watermark'. Watermarks are translucent areas in a sheet of paper which are visible when held to the light. These areas are the result of impressions left in the pulp by relief designs attached to the mould surface. When the sheet is formed, the pulp is thinner over the relief areas. Watermarks are used as overall patterns, logos, or identification cation marks of the kind of paper, artist, papermaker or mill.

Japanese for the papermaking mould used to form the sheets of paper. Literally it refers to the screen or 'SU' and the frame or 'KETA'. Sometimes it is called 'SUGETA'.

Japanese for the papermaking vat. Litera]ly it means 'the vessel for papermaking'. It was traditionally made from pine or cypress but nowadays wooden ones are often lined with stainless steel or made entirely of stainless steel or concrete. Its primary function is to hold the fiber-neri-water mixture but it has several attachments that make it appear quite different from a Western vat. There are two notched posts or 'TORII' attached to the left and right sides of the vat. These support the large comb-like mixing device 'UMAGUWA' . When the UMAGUWA is in place on the TORII, the general shape resembles the entrance gates(also called TORII) of Japanese shrines. Inside the vat are two narrow boards or 'OTTORI' [that are used to rest the KETA when opening it to remove or insert the SU.

The Japanese marbling technique. The name clearly describes the process of ink ['SUMI' $B!K (Bfloating or flowing $B!J (BNAGASHI' $B!K (Bon the surface of the water to form the patterns. The pattern is traditionally made by floating black or blue ink on the surface of the water then gently blowing or fanning the ink into the characteristic flowing lines. The origin may have been a game played by the Heian nobility. A sheet with freshly written characters was immersed in water and the nobles would watch the image float to the surface. Records indicate this technique may have begun before the 9th century but the oldest surviving example is in the "Sanjurokunin Kasen" , a collection of poetry written by 36 poets about 1112 A.D. and contains examples of many of the kinds of papers produced during that time. This National Treasure belongs to the Nishi Honganji in Kyoto. Suminagashi may have been the original technique that evolved into the Western marbling technique as it traveled along the Silk Road to India and the Middle East.

The last of the three basic actions to make paper using the NAGASHIZUKI method. This final action is similiar to the initial action. Once the desired thickness of the paper is achieved, the pulp mixture is quickly flowed over the entire surface then the excess is tossed off the far end of the mould. The quick motion alignsthe fibers in one direction and forms the back of the paper. Literally it means 'to throw away water'.

Japanese for the 'accumulation' method of papermaking. The pulp mixture is scooped in a continuous action toward the papermaker. The water is pulled through the screen surface by the suction that is created when the pulp filled mould is pulled up and out of the vat. This is probably why the process of making paper is sometimes referred to as 'pulling paper'. Before all the water drains through, the papermaker can gently shake the mould to even out the distribution of the pulp that has been accumulated on the screen surface. This newly formed sheet of paper is drained and couched onto the post. Each sheet of paper is separated by a sheet of cloth or felt to prevent the sheets of paper from sticking together during pressing. The mould is composed of a removable deckle and a frame with a non-removable rigid screen surface. Ancient chronicles indicate that this method was used during the Heian period. Now this term is used to refer to the Western style of papermaking.

An extremely thin KOZO paper that is made from the choicest fibers. It is made using a silk gauze [SHA] covered SU which results in a very smooth refined paper. The pulp is moved very quickly and aggresively over the screen surface. Originally used for artists' tracing paper, block copy for woodblock prints and backing paper. But after the Meiji period, it was also used as typing paper and now it is also used as wrapping paper for precious objects and jewelry. It was originally made in Mino (Gifu Prefecture) but now it is produced primarily in Kochi Prefecture. The origin of the name is unknown but different characters with the same reading are used to write the name of this paper, such as......

Literally it means 'sun bleaching'; a natural method of bleaching fibers and paper by exposure to sunlight.

One kind of GAMPI paper that began to be produced around the middle ages in Echizen (Fukui Prefecture). Literally 'child of the bird paper' or 'egg paper'; the name probably originated from the off-white or egg-shell color of the unbleached paper. It is used for stationary, cards, art printing and semi-official documents. There is also a kind of TORINOKO GAMI made from MITSUMATA that is sometimes referred to as 'SHIN TORINOKO GAMI', literally 'new TORINOKO paper']. It is cheaper than TORINOKO GAMI made from GAMPI and is often used for printing. Pine resin $B!J (B'MATSU YANI' $B!K (Bis sometimes added l.o size the paper.

The most widely used plant source for NERI. Hibiscus manihotof the Malvaceae or Mallow family, is sometimes called 'edible hibiscus' because the young leaves can be used as a salad green and the young seed pods are similar to okra, a member of the same family. Also called 'OSHOKKI' or 'SARU GOMA' [literally 'monkey seed'] because the brown seeds are said to bear the face of a monkey. This annual plant is originally from China and grows to a height of 1 to 2 meters (3 to 6 feet). The large pale yellow flowers bloom from summer to fall but the buds are removed if the roots are to be used for NERI. The roots are harvested in late fall and preserved until needed. To extract the NERI, the washed roots are crushed to expose as much of the inner surface as possible. The crushed roots are then soaked overnight in water. The resulting colorless viscous liquid is strained to remove any small particles of bark or root before use.

Another term for KAKENAGASHI, the first of three basic actions in the NAGASHIZUKI method of making paper. Literally it means 'first water'.

Literally it means 'beating method'; Japanese term for the process of beating the fibers into pulp. This term sometimes is used to mean only hand beating, as each person has a personal style (force, rhythm, etc.) of beating.

Literally 'thin paper' and is used to refer to thin kozo paper but more often refers to thin translucent gampi paper.

Literally this means Japanese [WA] paper [SHI], which is manufactured by hand or machine. This term came into use after the introduction of machine-made Western style papers in the Meiji period. It is sometimes used to refer to only handmade Japanese papers. The proper designation is 'TESUKI WASHI ' [handmade Japanese paper] or 'KIKAIZUKI WASHI' $B!J (Bmachine-made Japanese paper $B!K (B or 'KIKAI SHI' [machine-made paper]. Sometimes referred to as 'Japanese rice paper'. This misnomer was probably due to early foreigners who assumed it was made from rice or confused it with the thin soft paper-like material made from the pith of Tetrapanax papyriferum.

Japanese term for Western papers made by hand or machine. This term came into use during the Meiji period to differentiate the traditionally produced Japanese papers from the introduced machine-made Western papers. Literally it means 'foreign paper'.

Literally it means 'snow bleaching'; a traditional method of bleaching fibers and paper by either spreading them out over the snow banks or burying in snow.

Literally it means 'bow or arch'. The overhead suspension system that helps counter the weight and movement of the pulp mixture and support the SUKETA. Traditionally these consisted of three overhead bamboo poles but now high tension springs are also used. The suspension system is attached to the center of the back frame of the lower part of the KETA and to the handles called TEGI or NIGIRI. Smaller sized SUKETA are suspended only from the handles. Also called 'TSURI' [literally 'to suspend'].